Infinite. Total Magnification: 14.8-95X. 1X Semi Plan Achromatic Objective. Standard Coupler: 0.5X. Zoom Ratio: 1:6.5. Body Mounting Size for Stand: Dia. 76mm. Magnification Detent : 0.5X per pre-set stop. Post Stand. Illumination Type: LED Reflection Light. Top Illumination: Ring Light. CCD. CC4/S-Video. Screen Size: 10in. Input Voltage: AC 100-240V 50/60Hz. Pointer Light Waves Type: Laser.
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|Video microscope, also known as TV microscope, is a microscope that converts an optical image into a video image. Typically, for video microscope, it is an analog camera that displays an image on a display or on a projection.|
|Microscopes and components have two types of optical path design structures.|
One type is finite optical structural design, in which light passing through the objective lens is directed at the intermediate image plane (located in the front focal plane of the eyepiece) and converges at that point. The finite structure is an integrated design, with a compact structure, and it is a kind of economical microscope.
Another type is infinite optical structural design, in which the light between the tube lens after passing the objective lens becomes "parallel light". Within this distance, various kinds of optical components necessary such as beam splitters or optical filters call be added, and at the same time, this kind of design has better imaging results. As the design is modular, it is also called modular microscope. The modular structure facilitates the addition of different imaging and lighting accessories in the middle of the system as required.
The main components of infinite and finite, especially objective lens, are usually not interchangeable for use, and even if they can be imaged, the image quality will also have some defects.
The separative two-objective lens structure of the dual-light path of stereo microscope (SZ/FS microscope) is also known as Greenough.
Parallel optical microscope uses a parallel structure (PZ microscope), which is different from the separative two-object lens structure, and because its objective lens is one and the same, it is therefore also known as the CMO common main objective.
|The magnification of the objective lens refers to the lateral magnification, it is the ratio of the image to the real size after the original image is magnified by the instrument. This multiple refers to the length or width of the magnified object.|
System optical magnification is the product of the eyepiece and the objective lens (objective lens zoom set) of the optical imaging part within the system.
Optical magnification = eyepiece multiple X objective lens/objective lens set
The maximum optical magnification of the microscope depends on the wavelength of the light to which the object is illuminated. The size of the object that can be observed must be greater than the wavelength of the light. Otherwise, the light cannot be reflected or transmitted, or recognized by the human eye. The shortest wavelength of ultraviolet light is 0.2 microns, so the resolution of the optical microscope in the visible range does not exceed 0.2 microns, or 200 nanometers. This size is converted to the magnification of the microscope, and it is the optical magnification of 2000X. Usually, the compound microscope can achieve 100X objective lens, the eyepiece is 20X, and the magnification can reach 2000X. If it is bigger, it will be called "invalid magnification", that is, the image is large, but the resolution is no longer increased, and no more details and information can be seen.
|The electronic magnification usually refers to the lateral magnification, that is, the ratio of the magnification of the image of the object being observed after passing through the image sensor and the terminal display. This magnification is the digital image magnification and it does not improve the resolution of the original image to the object being observed. |
Electronic magnification = display size (diagonal) / camera sensor target (diagonal)
(Appendix) Different Camera Sensor Target Diagonal Conversion Table
|Total magnification is the magnification of the observed object finally obtained by the instrument. This magnification is often the product of the optical magnification and the electronic magnification.|
When it is only optically magnified, the total magnification will be the optical magnification.
Total magnification = optical magnification X electronic magnification
Total magnification = (objective X photo eyepiece) X (display size / camera sensor target )
|Field of View, is also called FOV. |
The field of view, or FOV, refers to the size of the object plane (i.e., the plane of the point of the observed object perpendicular to the optical axis), or of its conjugate plane (i.e., object to primary image distance), represented by a line value.
System field of view is the size of the actual diameter of the image of the terminal display device of the instrument, such as the size of the image in the eyepiece or in the display.
Field of view number refers to the diameter of the field diaphragm of the objective lens, or the diameter of the image plane formed by the field diaphragm.
Field of view number of objective lens = field of view number of eyepiece / (objective magnification / mechanical tube length)
Large field of view makes it easy to observe the full view and more range of the observed object, but the field of view (FOV) is inversely proportional to the magnification and inversely proportional to the resolution, that is, the larger the field of view, the smaller the magnification, and also the lower the resolution of the object to be observed.
There are usually two ways to increase the field of view, one is to replace with an objective lens of a smaller multiple, or to replace with an eyepiece of a smaller multiple.
|Working distance, also referred to as WD, is usually the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective lens of the microscope to the surface of the observed object.|
When the working distance or WD is large, the space between the objective lens and the object to be observed is also large, which can facilitate operation and the use of corresponding lighting conditions.
In general, system working distance is the working distance of the objective lens. When some other equipment, such as a light source etc., is used below the objective lens, the working distance (i.e., space) will become smaller.
Working distance or WD is related to the design of the working distance of the objective lens. Generally speaking, the bigger the magnification of the objective lens, the smaller the working distance. Conversely, the smaller the magnification of the objective lens, the greater the working distance.
When it is necessary to change the working distance requirement, it can be realized by changing the magnification of the objective lens.
|Video monocular zoom body is a zoom body that has only one set of optical paths, and it is also the body of the video continuous zoom.|
The upper end of the microscope body can be connected to the standard C-interface photo eyepiece, and then connected to the microscope camera; the lower end is the objective lens, and the objective lens of parallel structure is generally separated from the body, whereas the microscope body of finite structure is combined with the objective lens.
Some bodies of microscope have also a light source coaxial illumination device.
|Zoom in zoom microscope means to obtain different magnifications by changing the focal length of the objective lens within a certain range through adjustment of some lens or lens set while not changing the position of the object plane (that is, the plane of the point of the observed object perpendicular to the optical axis) and the image plane (that is, the plane of the image imaging focus and perpendicular to the optical axis) of the microscope. |
Zoom range refers to the range in which the magnification is from low to high. In the zoom range of the microscope, there is no need to adjust the microscope knob for focusing, and ensure that the image is always clear during the entire zoom process.
The larger the zoom range, the stronger the adaptability of the range for microscope observation, but the image effects at both ends of the low and high magnification should be taken into consideration, the larger the zoom range, the more difficult to design and manufacture, and the higher the cost will be.
|Zoom ratio is the ratio of the maximum magnification / the minimum magnification. Expressed as 1: (ratio of maximum magnification / minimum magnification). If the maximum magnification is 4.5X, the minimum magnification is 0.7X, then the zoom ratio = 4.5 / 0.7 = 6.4, the zoom ratio will be 1:6.4.|
Zoom ratio is obtained by the intermediate magnification group of the microscope. When the magnification is increased or decreased by using other objective lenses, the zoom ratio does not change accordingly.
|In the body of zoom microscope, zooming is continuous. When rotating to a certain position, generally an integral multiple, a positioning structure or detent is added, which has a distinct hand feel during the zooming process, and stops at this position.|
When measuring, or testing by factory for unified standard magnification, a magnification detent device can avoid the error caused by the inaccurate multiple positioning of the optical magnification.
|For microscopes of different manufacturers and different models, the thread size of their objectives may also be different. |
In general, the objective threads are available in two standard sizes, allowing similar objectives between different manufacturers to be used interchangeably.
One is the British system: RMS type objective thread: 4/5in X 1/36in,
One is metric: M25 X 0.75mm thread.
|Coupler magnification refers to the line field magnification of the coupler/C-mount-adapter. With different magnifications of the adapter lens, images of different magnifications and fields of view can be obtained. The size of the image field of view is related to the sensor size and the coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.|
Camera image field of view (mm) = sensor diagonal / coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.
For example: 1/2 inch sensor size, 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter coupler, field of view FOV (mm) = 8mm / 0.5 = 16mm.
The field of view number of the microscope 10X eyepiece is usually designed to be 18, 20, 22, 23mm, less than 1 inch (25.4mm). Since most commonly used camera sensor sizes are 1/3 and 1/2 inches, this makes the image field of view on the display always smaller than the field of view of the eyepiece for observation, and the visual perception becomes inconsistent when simultaneously viewed on both the eyepiece and the display. If it is changed to a 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter, the microscope image magnification is reduced by 1/2 and the field of view is doubled, then the image captured by the camera will be close to the range observed in the eyepiece.
Some adapters are designed without a lens, and their optical magnification is considered 1X.
|CCD, charge coupled device. |
See CCD and CMOS structure comparison table
|The size of the CCD and CMOS image sensors is the size of the photosensitive device. The larger the area of the photosensitive device, the larger the CCD/CMOS area; the more photons are captured, the better the photographic performance; the higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the larger the photosensitive area, and the better the imaging effect.|
The size of the image sensor needs to match the size of the microscope's photographic eyepiece; otherwise, black borders or dark corners will appear within the field of view of observation.
|Resolution of the camera refers to the number of pixels accommodated within unit area of the image sensor of the camera. Image resolution is not represented by area, but by the number of pixels accommodated within the unit length of the rectangular side. The unit of length is generally represented by inch.|
|Digital signals output: USB 2.0, USB3.0; 15 Pin VGA; Firewire Port; HDMI; VGA; Camera Link etc.|
Analog signal output: BNC; RCA; Y-C etc.
In addition, some cameras store and output images in the form of a memory card. Usually, industrial cameras often have several output modes on one camera for convenience purposes.
|Camera video signal format usually refers to the video output format of the analog signal: NTSC or PAL|
|Industrial camera adapters are usually available in three types:|
1. C-Mount: 1" diameter with 32 threads per inch, flange back intercept 17.5mm.
2. CS-Mount: 1" diameter with 32 threads per inch, flange back intercept 12.5mm.
CS-Mount can be converted to a C-Mount through a 5mm spacer, C-mount industrial camera cannot use the CS-mount lens.
3. F-Mount: F-mount is the adapter standard of Nikon lens, also known as Nikon mouth, usually used on large-sized sensor cameras, the flange back intercept is 46.5mm.
|White balance is an indicator that describes the precision of white color generated in the image when the three primary colors of red, green and blue are mixed, which accurately reflects the color condition of the subject. There are manual white balance and automatic white balance.|
White balance of the camera is to "restore white objects to white color under any light source." The chromatic aberration phenomenon occurred under different light sources is compensated by enhancing the corresponding complementary color. Automatic white balance can generally be used, but under certain conditions if the hue is not ideal, options of other white balance may be selected.
|The finite objective is the lateral magnification of the primary image formed by the objective at a prescribed distance.|
Infinite objective is the lateral magnification of the real image produced by the combination of the objective and the tube lens.
Infinite objective magnification = tube lens focal length (mm) / objective focal length (mm)
Lateral magnification of the image, that is, the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object.
The larger the magnification of the objective, the higher the resolution, the smaller the corresponding field of view, and the shorter the working distance.
|In the case of polychromatic light imaging, the aberration caused by the light of different wavelengths becomes chromatic aberration. Achromatic aberration is to correct the axial chromatic aberration to the two line spectra (C line, F line); apochromatic aberration is to correct the three line spectra (C line, D line, F line).|
The objective is designed according to the achromaticity and the flatness of the field of view. It can be divided into the following categories.
Achromatic objective: achromatic objective has corrected the chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, and comatic aberration. The chromatic portion of the achromatic objective has corrected only red and green, so when using achromatic objective, yellow-green filters are often used to reduce aberrations. The aberration of the achromatic objective in the center of the field of view is basically corrected, and as its structure is simple, the cost is low, it is commonly used in a microscope.
Semi-plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objective, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be properly corrected.
Plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objectives, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be well corrected. The plan objective provides a very good correction of the image plane curvature in the field of view of the objective, making the entire field of view smooth and easy to observe, especially in measurement it has achieved a more accurate effect.
Plan semi-apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to well correct the secondary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line and the F line).
Plan apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to very well correct the tertiary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line, the D line and the F line) and spherochromatic aberration. The apochromatic aberration has corrected the chromatic aberration in the range of red, green and purple (basically the entire visible light), and there is basically no limitation on the imaging effect of the light source. Generally, the apochromatic aberration is used in a high magnification objective.
|The objective working distance is the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective of the microscope to the object surface to be observed.|
Generally, the greater the magnification, the higher the resolution of the objective, and the smaller the working distance, the smaller the field of view. Conversely, the smaller the magnification, the lower the resolution of the objective, and the greater the working distance, and greater the field of view.
High-magnification objectives (such as 80X and 100X objectives) have a very short working distance. Be very careful when focusing for observation. Generally, it is after the objective is in position, the axial limit protection is locked, then the objective is moved away from the direction of the observed object.
The relatively greater working distance leaves a relatively large space between the objective and the object to be observed. It is suitable for under microscope operation, and it is also easier to use more illumination methods. The defect is that it may reduce the numerical aperture of the objective, thereby reducing the resolution.
|Post stand generally has relatively tall post. When the focus is adjusted, the focusing mechanism can slide up and down the post, the microscope is thus placed in an approximately focused position, and then the focusing mechanism makes fine and accurate adjustment. This kind of stand can move quickly, and is suitable for viewing objects with a higher height and bigger volume.|
After the microscope is mounted, the microscope imaging center needs to be aligned with the center of the platen.
The focusing mechanism button on the post must be tightened to lock the guard ring device, and the microscope should be prevented from loosening and shaking when working. When it is necessary to adjust the height, hold the microscope and the focusing mechanism with one hand, then release the knob, adjust it to the proper position, lock the knob, then top the guard ring to the lower position of the focusing mechanism, and lock it tight. In particular, avoid accidental dropping of the microscope due to gravity, thereby damaging the microscope and the objects below.
|The 76mm stand scope holder is the most popular microscope body adapter size, suitable for stereo microscopes produced by most manufacturers.|
Place the microscope body in a 76mm scope holder, tighten with screws to avoid shaking when the microscope is in use.
Because this stand scope holder is very common, some special-sized microscopes can also borrow and use this stand, but only need a specific adapter to connect the microscope body with a diameter of less than 76mm.
|Different microscope bodies, different human operations, and different requirements for observation and operation, all require adjustment of the pre-tightening force of the stand that support microscope body.|
Facing the stand just right, use both hands to reverse the force to adjust the tightness. (face the knob of one side just right, clockwise is to tighten, counterclockwise is to loosen)
In general, after long-time use, the knob will be loose, and adjustment is necessary.
|According to different objects to be observed, the appropriate platen should be selected. The microscope plate materials include black and white, black and white finish; transparent glass, frosted glass, metal, etc.|
Standard stands are generally configured with a suitable microscope plate, but different plates may need to be purchased separately.
Black and white microscope plate are made of general plastics, and the different backgrounds in black and white make the object more prominent.
Finish microscope plate eliminates reflections during observation.
Transparent glass plate is used when observing transparent or translucent objects, and the use of transmitted light source is to make the light penetrate the object to be observed as much as possible.
Finish glass plate, with its rough glass surface, can make the transmitted light more uniform and create a diffusing effect, avoiding exposure of the light shadow of the filament directly onto to the observed object.
Metal plate, relatively more solid, is more suitable when it is necessary to operate and cut.
Microscope plate is generally round shaped, on one side of the base there is a spring clip. When installing, align the plate with the clamp and push it in, and then press down the other end, so that the plate is smoothly embedded in to the circular card slot of the bottom plate.
When removing, grab the other end of the clip, push and lift up the plate.
|After unpacking, carefully inspect the various random accessories and parts in the package to avoid omissions. In order to save space and ensure safety of components, some components will be placed outside the inner packaging box, so be careful of their inspection.|
For special packaging, it is generally after opening the box, all packaging boxes, protective foam, plastic bags should be kept for a period of time. If there is a problem during the return period, you can return or exchange the original. After the return period (usually 10-30 days, according to the manufacturer’s Instruction of Terms of Service), these packaging boxes may be disposed of if there is no problem.
|Video Microscope Optical Data Sheet|
|1. Magnification=Objective Optical Magnification * Body Magnification * Coupler Magnification|
|Camera Image Sensor Specifications|
|No.||Camera Image Sensor Size||Camera image Sensor Diagonal|
|Digital Magnification Data Sheet|
|Image Sensor Size||Image Sensor Diagonal size||Monitor|
|Screen Size (10in)|
|Digital Zoom Function|
|1. Digital Zoom Function= (Screen Size * 25.4) / Image Sensor Diagonal size|
|Microscope Optical and Digital Magnifications Data Sheet|
|Objective||Coupler||Camera||Monitor||Video Microscope Optical Magnifications||Digital Zoom Function||Total Magnification||Field of View (mm)|
|PN||Magnification||PN||Magnification||Image Sensor Size||Image Sensor Diagonal size||Screen Size|
|1. Video Microscope Optical Magnifications=Objective Optical Magnification * Body Magnification * Coupler Magnification|
|2. Digital Zoom Function= (Screen Size * 25.4) / Image Sensor Diagonal size|
|3. Total Magnification= Video Microscope Optical Magnifications * (Screen Size * 25.4) / Image Sensor Diagonal size|
|4. Field of View (mm)= Image Sensor Diagonal size / Video Microscope Optical Magnifications|
|Desiccant Bag||1 Bag|
|Packaging Type||Carton Packaging|
|Packaging Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Packaging Dimensions(1)||32x28x24.5cm (12.598x11.024x9.646″)|
|Packaging Dimensions(2)||34x32x47cm (13.386x12.598x18.504″)|
|Inner Packing Material||Plastic Bag|
|Ancillary Packaging Materials||Pulp Mold|
|Gross Weight||6.25kg (13.78lbs)|
|Minimum Packaging Quantity||2pc|
|Transportation Carton||Carton Packaging|
|Transportation Carton Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(1)||32x28x24.5cm (12.598x11.024x9.646″)|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(2)||34x32x47cm (13.386x12.598x18.504″)|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(kilogram)||6.25|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(pound)||13.78|
|Quantity of One Transportation Carton||2pc|