Finite. Total Magnification: 40-1000X. 10X Eyepiece. 4X 10X 40X 100X Achromatic Objective. Eye Tube Angle: 45°. Quintuple Heads. Eyepiece Field of View: Dia. 18mm. XY Stage Travel Distance: 65x50mm. Illumination Type: LED Coaxial Transmitted Light. Input Voltage: AC 100-240V 50/60Hz. Pointer Light Waves Type: Laser.
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|Microscopes and components have two types of optical path design structures.|
One type is finite optical structural design, in which light passing through the objective lens is directed at the intermediate image plane (located in the front focal plane of the eyepiece) and converges at that point. The finite structure is an integrated design, with a compact structure, and it is a kind of economical microscope.
Another type is infinite optical structural design, in which the light between the tube lens after passing the objective lens becomes "parallel light". Within this distance, various kinds of optical components necessary such as beam splitters or optical filters call be added, and at the same time, this kind of design has better imaging results. As the design is modular, it is also called modular microscope. The modular structure facilitates the addition of different imaging and lighting accessories in the middle of the system as required.
The main components of infinite and finite, especially objective lens, are usually not interchangeable for use, and even if they can be imaged, the image quality will also have some defects.
The separative two-objective lens structure of the dual-light path of stereo microscope (SZ/FS microscope) is also known as Greenough.
Parallel optical microscope uses a parallel structure (PZ microscope), which is different from the separative two-object lens structure, and because its objective lens is one and the same, it is therefore also known as the CMO common main objective.
|For objective lens design of finite microscope, its mechanical tube length is the distance from the objective nosepiece shoulder of the objective lens to the eyepiece seat in the tubes, that is, the eyepiece shoulder.|
There are two standards in the traditional microscope structure, namely, DIN and JIS. DIN (Deutsches Institute fur Normung) is a popular international standard for microscopes, using 195mm standard conjugate distance (also known as object to primary image distance, 36mm objective lens parfocal distance, and 146.5mm optical tube length.
JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) is a standard adopted by some Japanese manufacturers, using 160mm standard conjugate distance (also known as object to primary image distance), 45mm objective lens parfocal distance), and 150mm optical tube length.
Using the same microscope standard design, the objective lenses can be used interchangeably.
|The magnification of the objective lens refers to the lateral magnification, it is the ratio of the image to the real size after the original image is magnified by the instrument. This multiple refers to the length or width of the magnified object.|
System optical magnification is the product of the eyepiece and the objective lens (objective lens zoom set) of the optical imaging part within the system.
Optical magnification = eyepiece multiple X objective lens/objective lens set
The maximum optical magnification of the microscope depends on the wavelength of the light to which the object is illuminated. The size of the object that can be observed must be greater than the wavelength of the light. Otherwise, the light cannot be reflected or transmitted, or recognized by the human eye. The shortest wavelength of ultraviolet light is 0.2 microns, so the resolution of the optical microscope in the visible range does not exceed 0.2 microns, or 200 nanometers. This size is converted to the magnification of the microscope, and it is the optical magnification of 2000X. Usually, the compound microscope can achieve 100X objective lens, the eyepiece is 20X, and the magnification can reach 2000X. If it is bigger, it will be called "invalid magnification", that is, the image is large, but the resolution is no longer increased, and no more details and information can be seen.
|Total magnification is the magnification of the observed object finally obtained by the instrument. This magnification is often the product of the optical magnification and the electronic magnification.|
When it is only optically magnified, the total magnification will be the optical magnification.
Total magnification = optical magnification X electronic magnification
Total magnification = (objective X photo eyepiece) X (display size / camera sensor target )
|Field of View, is also called FOV. |
The field of view, or FOV, refers to the size of the object plane (i.e., the plane of the point of the observed object perpendicular to the optical axis), or of its conjugate plane (i.e., object to primary image distance), represented by a line value.
System field of view is the size of the actual diameter of the image of the terminal display device of the instrument, such as the size of the image in the eyepiece or in the display.
Field of view number refers to the diameter of the field diaphragm of the objective lens, or the diameter of the image plane formed by the field diaphragm.
Field of view number of objective lens = field of view number of eyepiece / (objective magnification / mechanical tube length)
Large field of view makes it easy to observe the full view and more range of the observed object, but the field of view (FOV) is inversely proportional to the magnification and inversely proportional to the resolution, that is, the larger the field of view, the smaller the magnification, and also the lower the resolution of the object to be observed.
There are usually two ways to increase the field of view, one is to replace with an objective lens of a smaller multiple, or to replace with an eyepiece of a smaller multiple.
|Working distance, also referred to as WD, is usually the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective lens of the microscope to the surface of the observed object.|
When the working distance or WD is large, the space between the objective lens and the object to be observed is also large, which can facilitate operation and the use of corresponding lighting conditions.
In general, system working distance is the working distance of the objective lens. When some other equipment, such as a light source etc., is used below the objective lens, the working distance (i.e., space) will become smaller.
Working distance or WD is related to the design of the working distance of the objective lens. Generally speaking, the bigger the magnification of the objective lens, the smaller the working distance. Conversely, the smaller the magnification of the objective lens, the greater the working distance.
When it is necessary to change the working distance requirement, it can be realized by changing the magnification of the objective lens.
|For siedentopf eyetube, when changing the interpupillary distance, it requires two hands pushing or pulling the two eyetubes left and right simultaneously, and the two eyepiece tubes or eyetubes will change their position at the same time.|
|Usually the Microscope Eyetube is 45°, some is 30°, Tiltable Eyetube Angle design of a microscope is also known as the ergonomics microscope.|
0-30° or 0-45° is an ergonomic design. When the mechanical tube length / focal length of the tube of the microscope is relatively big, the microscope is relatively high, and the user's height or the seat of the work desk is not suitable, long-term use of microscope may cause sitting discomfort.
Eyepiece tube with variable angle can freely adjust the angle without lowering the head. Especially when it is close to 0 degree and the human eye is close to horizontal viewing, long-time or long-term use can avoid fatigue damage to the cervical vertebra.
|After imaging through a set of objective lenses, the object observed and the image seen by the human eye is inverted. When the observed object is manipulated, move the specimen or object, the image will move in the opposite direction in the field of view. Most of the biological microscopes are reversed-phase designs.|
When needing to operate works with accurate direction, it is necessary to design it into a forward microscope. Generally stereo microscopes and metallurgical microscopes are all of erect image design.
When observing through the camera and display, the erect and inverted image can be changed by the orientation of the camera.
|The eyepiece of the microscope can have different viewing or observing directions. When the position of the microscope is uncomfortable, the direction of the eyepiece tube of the microscope can be adjusted, to facilitate observation and operation.|
Placement method of different viewing angles of the microscope:
General direction: the support column is behind the object to be observed
Reverse direction: the support column is in front of the object to be observed
Lateral direction: the support column is on the side of the object to be observed
Rotating eyepiece tube, different microscopes may have different methods, for some, the direction is confirmed when installing the eyepiece tube of the microscope, for some, by rotating the body of the microscope, and for some, by rotating the support member on the support or holder of the microscope.
|The distance between the two pupils of the human eye is different. When the image of exit pupil of the two eyepieces of the microscope are not aligned with the entry pupil of the eye, the two eyes will see different images, which can cause discomfort.|
Adjust the distance between the two eyepieces, to accommodate or adapt to the pupil distance of the observer's eyes. The adjustment range is generally between 55-75mm.
|For most people, their two eyes, the left and the right, have different vision; for the eyepiece tube, the eyepoint height of the eyepiece can be adjusted to compensate for the difference in vision between the two eyes, so that the imaging in the two eyes is clear and consistent. |
The range of adjustment of the eyepiece tube is generally diopter plus or minus 5 degrees, and the maximum differential value between the two eyepieces can reach 10 degrees.
Monocular adjustable and binocular adjustable: some microscopes have one eyepiece tube adjustable, and some have two eyepiece tubes adjustable. First, adjust one eyepiece tube to the 0 degree position, adjust the microscope focusing knob, and find the clear image of this eyepiece (when the monocular adjustable is used, first adjust the focusing knob to make this eyepiece image clear), then adjust the image of another eyepiece tube (do not adjust the focusing knob again at this time), repeatedly adjust to find the clear position, then the two images are clear at the same time. For this particular user, do not adjust this device anymore in the future.
As some microscopes do not have the vision adjustment mechanism for the eyepiece tube, the vision of the two eyes are adjusted through the eyepiece adjustable.
|The number of microscope head refers to the number of the observation tubes when there is more than one observing through the microscope. By using prism splitting or optical bridge assemblage, when one person operates, many people can observe the image in the same field of view.|
When the number of observation heads is relatively more, since each optical path needs to be split from the main optical path, so the more the number of observation heads, the darker the field of view will be.
Microscope on the main operating position often has an indicator, usually an indicator light generated by the power source, to demonstrate some special observation points and locations.
In teaching or multi-person demonstration, the method of camera connected to the display is often used; and by observing the image on the screen, it achieves the teaching and presentation effect, and the cost is low and the effects are good. But in some special industrial applications, such as surgery under the microscope, biological cell analysis under the microscope, factory assembly, welding, etc., multi-person observation of the microscope can better display the completely realistic mirroring effect, and is also irreplaceable.
|Eyepiece optical magnification is the visual magnification of the virtual image after initial imaging through the eyepiece. When the human eye observes through the eyepiece, the ratio of the tangent of the angle of view of the image and the tangent of the angle of view of the human eye when viewing or observing the object directly at the reference viewing distance is usually calculated according to 250 mm/focal length of eyepiece.|
The standard configuration of a general microscope is a 10X eyepiece.
Usually, the magnification of the eyepiece of compound microscope is 5X, 8X, 10X, 12.5X, 16X, 20X.
As stereo microscope has a low total magnification, its eyepiece magnification generally does not use 5X, but can achieve 25X, 30X and other much bigger magnification.
|The eyepiece field of view is the diameter of the field diaphragm of the eyepiece, or the diameter of the image plane of the field diaphragm imaged by the field diaphragm.|
The diameter of a large field of view can increase the viewing range, and see more detail in the field of view. However, if the field of view is too large, the spherical aberration and distortion around the eyepiece will increase, and the stray light around the field of view will affect the imaging effect.
|Illumination base is a modular light source component, suitable for microscope stand base that has no light source of itself, and it is usually dedicated components supporting some stands.|
Illumination base typically includes at least one bottom lighting, and there are also illumination base that includes the circuit portion of the upper light source.
|Focus mechanism, the coarse / fine focus knobs are in a coaxial center position, they are connected together by a gear reduction mechanism, which can be coarse/ fine focus adjusted at any time during the entire stroke.|
Generally, the coarse focus diameter is relatively big, which is inside close to the body of the microscope, and the fine focus diameter is relatively small, which is outside of the body of the microscope. Coarse focus adjustment is used to quickly move to find the image, and the fine focus adjustment is used to finely adjust the clarity of the image. Generally, the minimum read value of the fine focus adjustment can be accurate to 1 micron, and single circle can reach a stroke of 0.1 mm. Mechanical fine focus plays a very important role in the accuracy of the microscope resolution. If the fine focus accuracy is not enough, or cannot be stabilized at the sharpest focusing position, the image will be out of focus and become blurred.
The tightness of coarse focus is generally adjustable. Generally, on one side of the knob (usually on the right side), there is a textured knob on the inside of the coarse knob, which is tightened if rotated clockwise; and loosened if rotated counterclockwise.
In the process of focusing, direct focusing should not be on the objective of high magnification; instead, find the object of low magnification first, and gradually adjust to high magnification. Usually, the coarse focus knob is rotated first, and when the objective lens is gradually lowered or the platform is gradually rising, find the object, and then adjust with the fine focus, until the object image in the field of view is clear. Generally, when changing from low magnification to high magnification objective, one only need to slightly adjust the fine focus knob to make the object image clear. During the process, the distance between the objective and the specimen should be observed from the side, to understand the critical value of the object distance between the lens and the specimen.
When using a high magnification objective, since the distance between the objective and the specimen is very close, after the image is found, the coarse focus knob cannot generally be used, and the fine focus knob can only be used to avoid excessive distance of movement, damaging the objective and the slide or specimen.
By using the characteristics of the fine focus, the height or thickness of the observed object can be roughly measured under the microscope, such as measuring the thickness of the cell or tissue, the thickness of the cover glass, and the thickness of small objects that cannot be measured by various conventional measuring instruments.
Method of measurement: place the object to be measured at the center of the field of view of the stage. After the image is clearly focused, try to use the highest magnification objective as much as possible, and align the adapter of the top feature point of the object to be measured. After adjusting clear, record the position of scale of the fine focus knob. Then, move the objective down to the adapter of the lowest feature point of the object to be measured, and record the position of scale of the fine focus knob. Then, according to the above fine focus, record the number of rounds of movement, and based on the parameters of conversion of each round into stroke (see the microscope fine focus knob parameters), the number of rounds is converted into the total stroke, which is the height of the object to be measured. If it is repeated a few times for average, a more accurate measurement can be obtained.
|Mostly, at the junction of the compound microscope platform and the body, there is a longitudinal limit mechanism. When the limit mechanism is locked, the platform is prevented from moving up and colliding with the microscope objective, thereby damaging the specimen or destroying the lens.|
On its first use, use one specimen, applying 100X or the highest magnification lens, carefully find the clearest image, then lock the axial limit mechanism down, the focus mechanism will remember this position. When the focus is adjusted again to reach this position in the future, it will not go up again, and the platform or specimen will not touch the lens.
|Different microscope bodies, different human operations, and different requirements for observation and operation, all require adjustment of the pre-tightening force of the stand that support microscope body.|
Facing the stand just right, use both hands to reverse the force to adjust the tightness. (face the knob of one side just right, clockwise is to tighten, counterclockwise is to loosen)
In general, after long-time use, the knob will be loose, and adjustment is necessary.
|Stage backlight window size refers to the size of the window through which the transmitted light passes under the stage on the XY table plane of the stage.|
This window is usually covered with a piece of glass. For some stages with accuracy requirements in the XY horizontal direction, the horizontal plane of the glass can be adjusted by the height of the screws on the four corners below, and the consistency with the height of the stage plane is guaranteed.
|The movement of the microscope stage or the mechanical stage can be measured by the moving distance of the ruler, and the size and area of the sample details can be calculated.|
The ruler can be divided into main scale and sub-scale. The minimum grid value of the main scale is 1 mm, the integer is measured; the minimum grid value of the sub-scale is 0.9 mm, the decimal is measured. When measuring, if what the main ruler measures is not an integer and therefore one needs to read the decimal of the specimen, align the end point of the sub-scale to the end of this specimen, and then find the scale on the line of main ruler and the sub-ruler, and see which group is the closest, the length of this decimal is the reading of the sub-scale.
|Kohler illumination: is a secondary imaging illumination that overcomes the shortcoming of direct illumination of critical illumination. After the filament of the light source passes through the condenser and the variable field diaphragm, the filament image falls for the first time in the condenser aperture diaphragm, the condenser forms a second image at the back focus plane position there, so that there is no filament image at the plane of the object to be observed, and the illumination becomes uniform.|
During observation, by changing the size of the condenser aperture diaphragm, the light source fills in the entrance pupil of the objective lens, and the numerical aperture of the condenser is matched with the numerical aperture of the objective lens. At the same time, the condenser images the field diaphragm at the plane of the observed object, and the illumination range is controlled by the size of the field diaphragm. Since the thermal focus of Kohler illumination is not at the plane of the object to be observed, the object to be observed will not be damaged even if it is irradiated for a long time.
|Field diaphragm is also called field of view diaphragm, field of view cutting diaphragm. |
The diaphragm that defines the incident angle of view and the exit angle of view of the beam emitted from the object plane, is called field diaphragm.
The main function of the field diaphragm is to limit the range of the image surface size of the observed specimen, and cut off the part of the image edge image plane with relatively poor image quality, so that the entire image plane is clear and flat, but does not affect the resolution of the entire objective lens.
The appropriate adjustment of the field diaphragm can also adjust the glare reflected from the inner wall of the lens tube to improve the imaging contrast and quality. On the eyepiece of the microscope, there is a field-cutting diaphragm. The size of this diaphragm is fixed, and it is also called fixed diaphragm. Its position is between the field lens and the eyepiece, and its function is to limit the emit angle of view of the main beam, so as to make the imaging of the field edge to achieve an ideal effect.
The field diaphragm of most biological microscopes is on the light exit of the base, while the field diaphragm of compound microscopes, such as upright metallurgical and fluorescent microscope, are mounted on the coaxial reflection illuminator.
|Abbe condenser is a kind of bright field condenser, a condenser that can only finitely correct the spherical aberration, but not the chromatic aberration. When the numerical aperture of its objectives is higher than 0.6, Abbe condenser will show chromatic aberration and spherical aberration.|
|Usually, a plane mirror or a concave mirror is used under the stage to reflect external light source illumination. This kind of concave mirror is generally used in low magnification objective lens without a condenser. |
Some reflection mirrors can use natural light directly for reflection in microscope illumination without the need to use a power source and a light bulb for lighting.
When high-intensity glare illumination is required, but also continuous-band incandescent or halogen lamps must be used, the use of a mirror or reflector can effectively eliminate the uneven illumination of the image by the filament of the incandescent lamp or the halogen lamp.
|After unpacking, carefully inspect the various random accessories and parts in the package to avoid omissions. In order to save space and ensure safety of components, some components will be placed outside the inner packaging box, so be careful of their inspection.|
For special packaging, it is generally after opening the box, all packaging boxes, protective foam, plastic bags should be kept for a period of time. If there is a problem during the return period, you can return or exchange the original. After the return period (usually 10-30 days, according to the manufacturer’s Instruction of Terms of Service), these packaging boxes may be disposed of if there is no problem.
|Desiccant Bag||1 Bag|
|Cedar Oil||1 Bottle|
|Product Instructions/Operation Manual||1pc|
|Packaging Type||Carton Packaging|
|Packaging Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Packaging Dimensions(1)||64x55x44cm (25.197x21.654x17.323″)|
|Packaging Dimensions(2)||125x48x16cm (49.213x18.898x6.299″)|
|Inner Packing Material||Plastic Bag|
|Ancillary Packaging Materials||Expanded Polystyrene|
|Gross Weight||37.26kg (82.14lbs)|
|Minimum Packaging Quantity||1pc|
|Transportation Carton||Carton Packaging|
|Transportation Carton Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(1)||64x55x44cm (25.197x21.654x17.323″)|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(2)||125x48x16cm (49.213x18.898x6.299″)|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(kilogram)||37.26|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(pound)||82.14|
|Quantity of One Transportation Carton||2pc|