Infinite. Total Magnification: 0.35-2.25X. 1X Semi Plan Achromatic Objective. Standard Coupler: 0.5X. Zoom Ratio: 1:6.4. Body Mounting Size for Stand: Dia. 39mm. Magnification Detent : 0.5X per pre-set stop. Track Stand. XY Stage Travel Distance: 2x2 in. XY-Axis Measurement Mode: Micrometer. LED Light. Light Adjustable. CMOS. 3.0 Megapixels. USB 3.0. Windows XP/7/8/10. Input Voltage: AC 90-265V 50/60Hz.
|Measurement under the microscope is a kind of non-contact measurement, that is, the measurement tool uses the points, lines, circles, angles, areas, three-dimensional of the image and the complex geometric images of the measured object to measure and calculate without contacting the specimen. For measurements, different optical systems and different measurement methods can be used, from the simplest measurement with scales to tools such as optical measurement platforms, as well as relevant measurement software etc. Measurement microscope is the general term for microscopes with this type of function.|
Non-contact measurement can measure the data of some small and irregular objects that are not accessible by conventional measuring tools. Especially after amplification of the microscope, its measurement accuracy can be very high, and the error caused by the optical system is small or even negligible.
Basic Hardware Requirements of the Measuring Microscope:
For microscopic measurement, it must be ensured that the image surface of the objective lens is flat. Optical microscopic measurement is actually to measure the image of an object. The image must overcome the curvature of field brought about by the objective lens and the image distortion caused by astigmatism so as to make the measurement more accurate. Therefore, for microscopic measurement, plan objective is recommended; for large-area long-distance measurement, the impact of perspective error also needs to overcome, for which, telecentric objective lens should be used.
For microscopic measurement, single light path microscope is generally used, such as metallurgical microscope; for continuous magnification, video zoom lens should be used. Because the two optical paths of the dual light-path stereo microscope have an angle of 12 degrees, on each optical path there has actually a 6 degree inclination angle from the vertical angle, in such a case, the measurement will cause error.
If the microscope is continuously zoomed, the main multiple points that need to be zoomed in should have magnification detent.
Light Source Requirements:
The light source for microscopic measurement should be uniform on the image plane of the field of view, and the bottom light should preferably use parallel light to make the outline and feature points clear. In theory, for microscopic measurement, it is best to use monochromatic light to reduce the effect of chromatic aberration, and therefore red light with the longest wavelength in the visible light is often used in measurement.
Using optical measurement platform, it is possible to measure some large objects that exceed the microscope's field of view, and can achieve an accuracy of micron or even much smaller. The platform requires that the table plane should be of sound flatness, and maintains stable and leveling during movement. Moreover, the platform needs to have good rigidity, is not deformed or displaced itself, ensuring repeated measurement accuracy.
Other Simple Measurement Methods:
With the simple mechanism on the microscope, simple measurements and calculations can be performed on some observed objects that are not easy to use contact measurement. In addition to eyepiece reticle and objective micrometer measurement that we are familiar with, there are also other simple methods: for example, using the scale on the microscope stage, its accuracy can reach 0.1mm, which can measure the length of the measured object and roughly calculate its area; Using fine-tuning hand wheel mechanism of the microscope, calculate the height of the object to be observed by converting the fine-tuning number of revolutions into focusing stroke; using the rotating stage and the goniometer eyepiece, measure the angle etc.
Since the measurement is performed under the microscope on the image after the object is enlarged, it is therefore necessary to add a scale on the observed object so as to determine the actual size. The scale of a general microscope is called microscope micrometer, used to compare the actual size of the object or, as a scale6, to record to the measurement system.
Generally, the reticle measurement on the eyepiece of the microscope is between 0.2 μm ~ 25 mm, of which 0.2 μm is the resolution of optical microscope, and 25 mm is the maximum diameter of the microscope field of view. The effect of the magnification should be subtracted from the measured dimensions. Or for the eyepiece reticle, it is necessary to coordinate with the objective micrometer to calibrate under the microscope, convert the grid value on the eyepiece reticle to the length on the objective micrometer, and then measure.
In the XYZ measurement platform, the error caused by the measurement in the horizontal and vertical directions of the platform and the error caused in the repeated positioning accuracy by the rigidity of the platform should all be calibrated.
For measuring microscopes and scales, the calibration of their system or measuring components is usually conducted by relevant agencies within a certain time frame to make the measurement more accurate.
On the Error of Optical measurement:
The reason for the error of measurement is multi-faceted. From the theoretical point of view, for rough measurement using eyepiece reticle to zoom in through the objective lens of the microscope, the influence of the error of system magnification is relatively large, and because of the geometric magnification error of the optical lens, the objective lens of ordinary microscope can achieve plus or minus 5%.
Measuring with a scale on the objective lens, the problem of error of the measurement result caused by the magnification error of the objective lens can be theoretically solved.
Measurement using mechanical platforms, regardless of the drive and measurement scale used, aside from the theoretical error caused by the depth of field of the objective lens, it mainly depends on the measurement reading mechanism, such as gratings, micrometers and dial gauges etc. However, the rigidity of the platform, the flatness of the platform surface, and the level of platform movement will still affect the measurement results. Therefore, finding the problem can improve effectively the accuracy requirements when using even a very economical equipment system.
|Microscopes and components have two types of optical path design structures.|
One type is finite optical structural design, in which light passing through the objective lens is directed at the intermediate image plane (located in the front focal plane of the eyepiece) and converges at that point. The finite structure is an integrated design, with a compact structure, and it is a kind of economical microscope.
Another type is infinite optical structural design, in which the light between the tube lens after passing the objective lens becomes "parallel light". Within this distance, various kinds of optical components necessary such as beam splitters or optical filters call be added, and at the same time, this kind of design has better imaging results. As the design is modular, it is also called modular microscope. The modular structure facilitates the addition of different imaging and lighting accessories in the middle of the system as required.
The main components of infinite and finite, especially objective lens, are usually not interchangeable for use, and even if they can be imaged, the image quality will also have some defects.
The separative two-objective lens structure of the dual-light path of stereo microscope (SZ/FS microscope) is also known as Greenough.
Parallel optical microscope uses a parallel structure (PZ microscope), which is different from the separative two-object lens structure, and because its objective lens is one and the same, it is therefore also known as the CMO common main objective.
|The magnification of the objective lens refers to the lateral magnification, it is the ratio of the image to the real size after the original image is magnified by the instrument. This multiple refers to the length or width of the magnified object.|
System optical magnification is the product of the eyepiece and the objective lens (objective lens zoom set) of the optical imaging part within the system.
Optical magnification = eyepiece multiple X objective lens/objective lens set
The maximum optical magnification of the microscope depends on the wavelength of the light to which the object is illuminated. The size of the object that can be observed must be greater than the wavelength of the light. Otherwise, the light cannot be reflected or transmitted, or recognized by the human eye. The shortest wavelength of ultraviolet light is 0.2 microns, so the resolution of the optical microscope in the visible range does not exceed 0.2 microns, or 200 nanometers. This size is converted to the magnification of the microscope, and it is the optical magnification of 2000X. Usually, the compound microscope can achieve 100X objective lens, the eyepiece is 20X, and the magnification can reach 2000X. If it is bigger, it will be called "invalid magnification", that is, the image is large, but the resolution is no longer increased, and no more details and information can be seen.
|Total magnification is the magnification of the observed object finally obtained by the instrument. This magnification is often the product of the optical magnification and the electronic magnification.|
When it is only optically magnified, the total magnification will be the optical magnification.
Total magnification = optical magnification X electronic magnification
Total magnification = (objective X photo eyepiece) X (display size / camera sensor target )
|Working distance, also referred to as WD, is usually the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective lens of the microscope to the surface of the observed object.|
When the working distance or WD is large, the space between the objective lens and the object to be observed is also large, which can facilitate operation and the use of corresponding lighting conditions.
In general, system working distance is the working distance of the objective lens. When some other equipment, such as a light source etc., is used below the objective lens, the working distance (i.e., space) will become smaller.
Working distance or WD is related to the design of the working distance of the objective lens. Generally speaking, the bigger the magnification of the objective lens, the smaller the working distance. Conversely, the smaller the magnification of the objective lens, the greater the working distance.
When it is necessary to change the working distance requirement, it can be realized by changing the magnification of the objective lens.
|The finite objective is the lateral magnification of the primary image formed by the objective at a prescribed distance.|
Infinite objective is the lateral magnification of the real image produced by the combination of the objective and the tube lens.
Infinite objective magnification = tube lens focal length (mm) / objective focal length (mm)
Lateral magnification of the image, that is, the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object.
The larger the magnification of the objective, the higher the resolution, the smaller the corresponding field of view, and the shorter the working distance.
|In the case of polychromatic light imaging, the aberration caused by the light of different wavelengths becomes chromatic aberration. Achromatic aberration is to correct the axial chromatic aberration to the two line spectra (C line, F line); apochromatic aberration is to correct the three line spectra (C line, D line, F line).|
The objective is designed according to the achromaticity and the flatness of the field of view. It can be divided into the following categories.
Achromatic objective: achromatic objective has corrected the chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, and comatic aberration. The chromatic portion of the achromatic objective has corrected only red and green, so when using achromatic objective, yellow-green filters are often used to reduce aberrations. The aberration of the achromatic objective in the center of the field of view is basically corrected, and as its structure is simple, the cost is low, it is commonly used in a microscope.
Semi-plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objective, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be properly corrected.
Plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objectives, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be well corrected. The plan objective provides a very good correction of the image plane curvature in the field of view of the objective, making the entire field of view smooth and easy to observe, especially in measurement it has achieved a more accurate effect.
Plan semi-apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to well correct the secondary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line and the F line).
Plan apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to very well correct the tertiary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line, the D line and the F line) and spherochromatic aberration. The apochromatic aberration has corrected the chromatic aberration in the range of red, green and purple (basically the entire visible light), and there is basically no limitation on the imaging effect of the light source. Generally, the apochromatic aberration is used in a high magnification objective.
|The objective working distance is the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective of the microscope to the object surface to be observed.|
Generally, the greater the magnification, the higher the resolution of the objective, and the smaller the working distance, the smaller the field of view. Conversely, the smaller the magnification, the lower the resolution of the objective, and the greater the working distance, and greater the field of view.
High-magnification objectives (such as 80X and 100X objectives) have a very short working distance. Be very careful when focusing for observation. Generally, it is after the objective is in position, the axial limit protection is locked, then the objective is moved away from the direction of the observed object.
The relatively greater working distance leaves a relatively large space between the objective and the object to be observed. It is suitable for under microscope operation, and it is also easier to use more illumination methods. The defect is that it may reduce the numerical aperture of the objective, thereby reducing the resolution.
|For microscopes of different manufacturers and different models, the thread size of their objectives may also be different. |
In general, the objective threads are available in two standard sizes, allowing similar objectives between different manufacturers to be used interchangeably.
One is the British system: RMS type objective thread: 4/5in X 1/36in,
One is metric: M25 X 0.75mm thread.
|Zoom in zoom microscope means to obtain different magnifications by changing the focal length of the objective lens within a certain range through adjustment of some lens or lens set while not changing the position of the object plane (that is, the plane of the point of the observed object perpendicular to the optical axis) and the image plane (that is, the plane of the image imaging focus and perpendicular to the optical axis) of the microscope. |
Zoom range refers to the range in which the magnification is from low to high. In the zoom range of the microscope, there is no need to adjust the microscope knob for focusing, and ensure that the image is always clear during the entire zoom process.
The larger the zoom range, the stronger the adaptability of the range for microscope observation, but the image effects at both ends of the low and high magnification should be taken into consideration, the larger the zoom range, the more difficult to design and manufacture, and the higher the cost will be.
|Zoom ratio is the ratio of the maximum magnification / the minimum magnification. Expressed as 1: (ratio of maximum magnification / minimum magnification). If the maximum magnification is 4.5X, the minimum magnification is 0.7X, then the zoom ratio = 4.5 / 0.7 = 6.4, the zoom ratio will be 1:6.4.|
Zoom ratio is obtained by the intermediate magnification group of the microscope. When the magnification is increased or decreased by using other objective lenses, the zoom ratio does not change accordingly.
|When the microscope body changes the magnification, it is realized by adjusting the zoom drum or nosepiece. Generally, the lower case of the microscope is used as the zoom drum or nosepiece. When magnification conversion is required, it can be realized by turning the zoom drum or nosepiece.|
|In the body of zoom microscope, zooming is continuous. When rotating to a certain position, generally an integral multiple, a positioning structure or detent is added, which has a distinct hand feel during the zooming process, and stops at this position.|
When measuring, or testing by factory for unified standard magnification, a magnification detent device can avoid the error caused by the inaccurate multiple positioning of the optical magnification.
|Throughout the focusing range, the track stand moves up and down along the guide rail through the focusing mechanism to achieve the purpose of focusing the microscope. This kind of structure is relatively stable, and the microscope is always kept moving up and down vertically along a central axis. When the focus is adjusted, it is not easy to shake, and there is no free sliding phenomenon. It is a relatively common and safe and reliable accessory.|
The size of the stand is generally small, flexible and convenient, and most of them are placed on the table for use, Therefore, together with the post stand, it is also called “desktop or table top stand".
With regard to the height of the stand, most manufacturers usually do not make it very high. If the guide rail is long, it is easy to deform, and relatively more difficult .
|The 39mm scope holder is a scope holder for connecting to a 39mm microscope body.|
|Stand throat depth, also known as the throat depth, is an important parameter when selecting a microscope stand. When observing a relatively large object, a relatively large space is required, and a large throat depth can accommodate the object to move to the microscope observation center.|
|Focus mechanism, the coarse / fine focus knobs are in a coaxial center position, they are connected together by a gear reduction mechanism, which can be coarse/ fine focus adjusted at any time during the entire stroke.|
Generally, the coarse focus diameter is relatively big, which is inside close to the body of the microscope, and the fine focus diameter is relatively small, which is outside of the body of the microscope. Coarse focus adjustment is used to quickly move to find the image, and the fine focus adjustment is used to finely adjust the clarity of the image. Generally, the minimum read value of the fine focus adjustment can be accurate to 1 micron, and single circle can reach a stroke of 0.1 mm. Mechanical fine focus plays a very important role in the accuracy of the microscope resolution. If the fine focus accuracy is not enough, or cannot be stabilized at the sharpest focusing position, the image will be out of focus and become blurred.
The tightness of coarse focus is generally adjustable. Generally, on one side of the knob (usually on the right side), there is a textured knob on the inside of the coarse knob, which is tightened if rotated clockwise; and loosened if rotated counterclockwise.
In the process of focusing, direct focusing should not be on the objective of high magnification; instead, find the object of low magnification first, and gradually adjust to high magnification. Usually, the coarse focus knob is rotated first, and when the objective lens is gradually lowered or the platform is gradually rising, find the object, and then adjust with the fine focus, until the object image in the field of view is clear. Generally, when changing from low magnification to high magnification objective, one only need to slightly adjust the fine focus knob to make the object image clear. During the process, the distance between the objective and the specimen should be observed from the side, to understand the critical value of the object distance between the lens and the specimen.
When using a high magnification objective, since the distance between the objective and the specimen is very close, after the image is found, the coarse focus knob cannot generally be used, and the fine focus knob can only be used to avoid excessive distance of movement, damaging the objective and the slide or specimen.
By using the characteristics of the fine focus, the height or thickness of the observed object can be roughly measured under the microscope, such as measuring the thickness of the cell or tissue, the thickness of the cover glass, and the thickness of small objects that cannot be measured by various conventional measuring instruments.
Method of measurement: place the object to be measured at the center of the field of view of the stage. After the image is clearly focused, try to use the highest magnification objective as much as possible, and align the adapter of the top feature point of the object to be measured. After adjusting clear, record the position of scale of the fine focus knob. Then, move the objective down to the adapter of the lowest feature point of the object to be measured, and record the position of scale of the fine focus knob. Then, according to the above fine focus, record the number of rounds of movement, and based on the parameters of conversion of each round into stroke (see the microscope fine focus knob parameters), the number of rounds is converted into the total stroke, which is the height of the object to be measured. If it is repeated a few times for average, a more accurate measurement can be obtained.
|Different microscope bodies, different human operations, and different requirements for observation and operation, all require adjustment of the pre-tightening force of the stand that support microscope body.|
Facing the stand just right, use both hands to reverse the force to adjust the tightness. (face the knob of one side just right, clockwise is to tighten, counterclockwise is to loosen)
In general, after long-time use, the knob will be loose, and adjustment is necessary.
|According to different objects to be observed, the appropriate platen should be selected. The microscope plate materials include black and white, black and white finish; transparent glass, frosted glass, metal, etc.|
Standard stands are generally configured with a suitable microscope plate, but different plates may need to be purchased separately.
Black and white microscope plate are made of general plastics, and the different backgrounds in black and white make the object more prominent.
Finish microscope plate eliminates reflections during observation.
Transparent glass plate is used when observing transparent or translucent objects, and the use of transmitted light source is to make the light penetrate the object to be observed as much as possible.
Finish glass plate, with its rough glass surface, can make the transmitted light more uniform and create a diffusing effect, avoiding exposure of the light shadow of the filament directly onto to the observed object.
Metal plate, relatively more solid, is more suitable when it is necessary to operate and cut.
Microscope plate is generally round shaped, on one side of the base there is a spring clip. When installing, align the plate with the clamp and push it in, and then press down the other end, so that the plate is smoothly embedded in to the circular card slot of the bottom plate.
When removing, grab the other end of the clip, push and lift up the plate.
|The XY measurement stage refers to the stage with a measuring mechanism in the XY horizontal direction, and it requires that the stage has relatively high accuracy. The stage not only has a flatness requirement on the surface, but also needs to ensure that in measurement the XY plane is always in a horizontal position during the movement.|
For the XY measurement stage, especially when observing and measuring the observed object beyond the field of view, the stage can be moved, and reading can be carried out through an externally attached measurement device to measure accurately large sized objects.
XY Stage Measurement Method
For XY measurements, a crosshair is required within the measurement field of view for aiming and positioning.
The crosshair can be obtained by various means, generally on the eyepiece, using the preset reticle method, which is the simplest method.
When using the monitor screen for measurement, a cross reticle can also be used, which is placed in the photographic eyepiece optical system. This method is simple and practical, the reticle is relatively clear, and various patterns of reticle can be used. It is also convenient to adjust the alignment angle of the reticle in the eyepiece.
At present, more and more measurements use the crosshair function in the camera. The crosshairs are displayed by splicing the pixels of the same color, and even the color can be selected so that it is clearly distinguished from the background pattern, making the crosshairs more conspicuous and easy to operate. Some cameras have crosshairs that can also add multiple sets of lines, and can move horizontally and vertically so as to combine a variety of rectangular patterns of different sizes. One can apply and mark the position and size of the observed specimens. In industrial processing, it has the profilometer and projector functions.
In addition to the camera to obtain the crosshair, there is also method of using a crosshair generator, display and other devices to obtain crosshair.
During measurement, first place the object to be measured on the center position of the field of view of the stage, adjust the clear image, open the crosshair, and then move the object to be measured to the starting position to be measured, so that the center intersection of the crosshair is aligned with the said position, turn on the scale 0 position (or note the reading position), then move the object to be measured in the X or Y direction until the end point of the measurement position, then stops, and finally read through the measuring scale.
Measurement error in XY horizontal direction
During measurement, aim at the starting point of the object to be measured through the eyepiece or the cross positioning on the display, then move the stage, so that the stage is moved to the end point in the horizontal axial movement. At this time, it is necessary to ensure that the distance between the two points is the actual distance of the horizontal direction. If the stage is tilted, an angle is created between the horizontal direction and the tilted or oblique direction. The numerical value we read is actually the length of a diagonal line, thereby causing error.
For XY stage measurement, it is necessary to use a high-magnification objective as much as possible.
The objective lens has a certain depth of field. The smaller the objective lens is, the larger the depth of field will be. The large depth of field cannot reflect the image blurring conditions caused by the up and down misalignment when the stage moves horizontally: the bigger the objective magnification, the smaller the depth of field. When the stage is not flat and moves out of the depth of field range, the image will be out of focus and becomes blurred, indicating that the stage is in a non-horizontal position, and the accuracy of the measurement at this time will be higher.
In principle, the depth of field range of the objective of the microscope is the minimum error range of the flatness of the platform stage.
For XY horizontal measurement, when measuring objects with shorter lengths, this error is very small, even negligible. If the measured object is relatively long, the bigger the angle at which the stage is tilted, the greater the differential value between the oblique line of the measured image and the actual horizontal line segment of the object, and also the bigger the accumulated error will be.
Because big stage has a bigger accumulated error, when measuring a relatively bigger length, it is necessary to calibrate the error within the stage system in advance. In measurement using computer software, the value of this accumulated error can be input into the measurement result for correction. Therefore, it must be ensured that the stage is always in a horizontal state in movement, which is the most basic requirement in optical measurement.
Ways to adjust the level of the XY stage:
1. Use a cross reticle in the eyepiece or display.
2. Select an objective with the largest magnification in the microscope system, and place a calibrated line ruler on the stage (a long transparent glass ruler for calibration). The marked front of the line ruler is below the ruler, near the side of the stage countertop.
3. Overlap the starting point of the line ruler with the starting position on one side of the stage; adjust the focus, ensure that the objective is aligned with the starting position image of the line scale to obtain the clearest image.
4. Move the X direction of the stage, so that the stage moves along the direction of the line ruler, and at the same time observe whether the grid image of the line ruler is clear, and record the blurred position of the image until the end position. After completion, do the side of the Y direction.
5. Among the above results, the unclear position is the position where the stage is not flat.
If the stage is unable to maintain horizontal, after the initial position is focus adjusted to get a clear image, the image will become more and more blurred, and in most cases, the stage is tilted to one side (up or down). To solve this problem, adjust the height of the four feet of the stage, or adjust the height position of the screws at the four corners of the bottom glazing of the stage center to keep the stage horizontal.
In general, adjusting the stage horizontal can adjust the height of the position of the anchor screw of the stage, or use a very thin shim (Shim) to adjust.
Sometimes, it is also necessary to adjust the perpendicularity of the optical axis of the microscope. Use the screw that fixes the microscope to top move the microscope, to make it shift in the vertical direction, keeping the microscope in a vertical position.
Using a line ruler can also calibrate whether the distance traveled by the line ruler at each grid value for measurement is consistent with the distance read by the stage drive (for example, the reading from the micrometer or the digital display), thereby calibrating the error of the stage movement accuracy. Such errors are often caused by the empty return of the stage drive or the insufficient of stage stiffness etc.
If line ruler is not used and the stage surface is observed directly, the above results can also be obtained. Also, when the stage surface is moved to each position, that whether the surface of the stage is uneven when processing can be displayed through clear or blurred image position, and can also observe whether the flatness of the stage plane itself is within the allowable range of the depth of field of the objective.
|Stage backlight window size refers to the size of the window through which the transmitted light passes under the stage on the XY table plane of the stage.|
This window is usually covered with a piece of glass. For some stages with accuracy requirements in the XY horizontal direction, the horizontal plane of the glass can be adjusted by the height of the screws on the four corners below, and the consistency with the height of the stage plane is guaranteed.
|The XY-axis measurement mode refers to the way the scale used when measuring the XY axis of the stage. For different system, the choice is also different according to the different accuracy and operation requirements, such as mechanical micrometer, capacitance digital display, encoder and so on.|
|XY-axis resolution refers to the minimum value of the measurement that the scale mechanism used can display when measuring the XY-axis. The resolution of the gauge refers to the scale value that can be read directly, also called the division value.|
For example, if the division value is 0.001 mm, that is, the resolution is 0.001 mm, and the numerical value of 0.001 mm can be read directly by the scale.
|The XY-axis measurement accuracy refers to the actually obtained measured value when measuring the XY axis. The accurate measurement value can be guaranteed within the range of plus or minus of this accuracy value. |
For example, if the measurement accuracy is ±0.002mm, the measured value of the spare part read is X, then the true value range of the part will be
Minimum size: X - 0.002
Maximum size: X + 0.002
|Micrometer head can be divided into mechanical micrometer and electronic micrometer. Electronic micrometer head is the micrometer head that displays the measurement results by numbers. When used in the platform, micrometer head has two functions, which can be used as a drive unit of the platform to displace the platform, and measure and read in the displacement.|
Digital micrometer head operation is more intuitive and convenient than traditional mechanical micrometer head, and has many auxiliary functions.
1. The readings are intuitive and accurate, avoiding errors that may be caused by inconvenient readings.
2. It is possible to set the relative 0 position at any position, so that the starting and ending points for measurement can be set freely to improve the efficiency.
3. Free switching between the metric and the British metric system.
4. The digital micrometer head can be equipped with a digital output adapter so that the measurement result can be directly input to a computer or a DRO (Digital ReadOut) to read and store data.
|Ring light is a kind of "shadowless lamp", which is illuminated from a 360-degree annular angle, and can observe the change of the edge and height of the object to be observed. It is very suitable for surface illumination of non-reflective objects, and is often used to observe and detect the edge of objects, surface structure, traces, etc. such as components on the printed circuit board, liquid crystal glass substrates, metal and non-metal surface dust, scratch damage, various kinds of particles, etc., and is also the most common way of illumination for stereo microscopes.|
Circular fluorescent light bulb is a bulb of peripheral illumination with no direction, it requires a reflective bowl to converge the light beam onto the illuminated object below the microscope. The diameter of the tube and the design of the reflective bowl determine the distance and position of the beam convergence point. The LED ring light consists of different LED bulbs. By setting the angle of the bulb, all the illumination beams are concentrated at one focus, and the annular or loop fiber is mostly designed by the incident angle of the fiber exit port.
The central concentration range of the ring lamp usually needs to coincide with the focal length of the objective lens of the stereo microscope. The working distance of the 1X objective lens of stereo microscope is generally about 80-100mm, which is the focus convergence position of most of the ring lamps. Because the external light source itself has a certain height, therefore the concentration center range of the ring light source is generally between 45-65mm. If below 45mm, shadow starts to appear in the middle; if higher than 65mm, the light in the middle will gradually diverge, and the brightness will decrease. When a small objective lens (such as 0.75X/0.5X) is selected, the lighting effect can basically be achieved; but when an objective lens with larger magnification is used and the working distance is relatively small (for example, 2X), the illumination center of the ring lamp will be a "black center", the effect of lighting will be relatively poor.
Ring lights are usually stuck at the bottom of the nosepiece. Tighten the screws. In general, the electrical wires should be pulled to the back of the operating position, the switch or button should be placed on the side for easy operation.
Generally, the ring light needs to be stuck with a lens frame at the bottom of the nosepiece. On the objective frame, there is a card slot for screw fastening. There are also microscope nosepieces that contains a card slot position of its own, and does not need an objective frame.
|The brightness of the light source adjustable is very important in the imaging of the microscope. Since the difference of the numerical aperture of the objective lens of high magnification and low magnification is very big, more incident light is needed to achieve a much better resolution when using a high magnification objective lens. Therefore, when observing through a high magnification objective lens, the brightness required is high; when observing through a low magnification objective lens, the brightness required is low.|
When observing different objects, or feature points of the same object at different positions, the brightness needs are also different; including the difference of background light or reflection within the field of view of observation, it has a great influence on the effect of observing the object, and therefore one needs to adjust the brightness of the light source according to each object to be observed.
In the light source capable of providing continuous spectrum, such as a halogen lamp, the brightness adjustment of the light not only adjusts the brightness and intensity of the light, but also changes the spectrum emitted by the light source. When the light source is dark, there are many components of red light, and when the brightness is high, there are more blue spectrum. If the required light is strong and the spectrum needs to be changed, the light can be kept at a brighter intensity, which is solved by adjusting the spectrum by adding a color filter.
Take note of the dimming button on the light source, after the On/Off switch is turned on, normally clockwise is to brighten, and counterclockwise is to darken.
If it is adjusted to the lowest brightness, the light source should normally be lit. If the naked eye still can't see the object being illuminated brightly, you need to adjust the brightness knob to a much bigger position.
Generally, there is scale marking on the dimming knob, which is an imaginary number representing the percentage of brightness, or an electronic digital display, giving the brightness of the light source under the same conditions a marking.
|Round light source, typically functions as a background light or backlight, is used when observing transparent or translucent objects.|
Round light source is direct light, and generally, its light bulbs are made on the flat backplane of the light source.
The brightness of backlight needs to be adjusted according to the condition of the object to be observed. If the object to be observed fills all the fields of view of the microscope for observation, the backlight can be brighter. If the object to be observed is very small, and has not filled all the field of view of the microscope for observation, the backlight should be slightly darker, otherwise the field of view will be too bright to see the object.
As a separate backlight or bottom light, it can usually be mounted to the microscope plate position. When it is temporarily used, it can be placed directly on the base, and the object to be observed is directly placed on the light source, and removed when not in use.
|Coupler/C-mount adapter is an adapter commonly used for connection between the C-adapter camera (industrial camera) and a microscope.|
|On the coupler/C-mount-adapter, there is an adjustable device to adjust the focal length.|
|Different coupler/C-mount-adapters are suitable for different microscopes. For some, some adapter accessories need to be replaced. See the applicable range of each coupler/C-mount-adapter for details.|
|Coupler magnification refers to the line field magnification of the coupler/C-mount-adapter. With different magnifications of the adapter lens, images of different magnifications and fields of view can be obtained. The size of the image field of view is related to the sensor size and the coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.|
Camera image field of view (mm) = sensor diagonal / coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.
For example: 1/2 inch sensor size, 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter coupler, field of view FOV (mm) = 8mm / 0.5 = 16mm.
The field of view number of the microscope 10X eyepiece is usually designed to be 18, 20, 22, 23mm, less than 1 inch (25.4mm). Since most commonly used camera sensor sizes are 1/3 and 1/2 inches, this makes the image field of view on the display always smaller than the field of view of the eyepiece for observation, and the visual perception becomes inconsistent when simultaneously viewed on both the eyepiece and the display. If it is changed to a 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter, the microscope image magnification is reduced by 1/2 and the field of view is doubled, then the image captured by the camera will be close to the range observed in the eyepiece.
Some adapters are designed without a lens, and their optical magnification is considered 1X.
|For the size of the lens field of view of the coupler/C-mount-adapter, in the design process, the size of the camera sensor imaging target should be considered. When the field of view of the lens is smaller than the target plane of the camera, “black border” and “dark corner” will appear.|
The general microscope coupler/C-mount adapters are generally designed for the 1/2" camera targets. When a camera of 2/3 or larger target is used, the “dark corner” phenomenon will appear in the field of view. Especially, at present, DSLR cameras generally use large target plane design (1 inch full field of view), when used for microscopic photographing, the general DSLR camera coupler/C-mount adapter will have “black border”.
Generally, the “dark corner” that appears on the field of view is often that the center of the microscope and the camera are not aligned. Adjust the position of the screw on the camera adapter, or turn the camera adapter to adjust or change the effect.
|At present, the coupler/C-mount adapter generally adopts the C/CS-Mount adapter to match with the industrial camera. For details, please refer to "Camera Lens Mount".|
|What the camera outputs are digital signals, which are output to the computer via the USB adapter.|
There are two kinds of popular USB adapters popular on the market, namely USB2.0 and USB3.0. Both kinds of adapters need different data lines to work.
|CMOS, or complementary metal oxide semiconductor.|
Both CMOS and CCD sensors have their own respective advantages and disadvantages. As a kind of photoelectric conversion sensor, among the current cameras, CMOS is relatively more widely used.
|The size of the CCD and CMOS image sensors is the size of the photosensitive device. The larger the area of the photosensitive device, the larger the CCD/CMOS area; the more photons are captured, the better the photographic performance; the higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the larger the photosensitive area, and the better the imaging effect.|
The size of the image sensor needs to match the size of the microscope's photographic eyepiece; otherwise, black borders or dark corners will appear within the field of view of observation.
|The pixel is determined by the number of photosensitive elements on the photoelectric sensor of the camera, and one photosensitive element corresponds to one pixel. Therefore, the more photosensitive elements, the larger the number of pixels; the better the imaging quality of the camera, and the higher the corresponding cost.|
The pixel unit is one, for example, 1.3 million pixels means 1.3 million pixels points, expressed as 1.3MP (Megapixels).
|Resolution of the camera refers to the number of pixels accommodated within unit area of the image sensor of the camera. Image resolution is not represented by area, but by the number of pixels accommodated within the unit length of the rectangular side. The unit of length is generally represented by inch.|
|The ways digital signals are output are:|
USB 2.0, USB3.0
15 Pin VGA
Camera Link etc.
The ways of analog signal output are as follows:
In addition, some cameras store and output images in the form of a memory card. Usually, industrial cameras often have several output modes on one camera for convenience purposes.
|Industrial camera adapters are usually available in three types:|
1. C-Mount: 1" diameter with 32 threads per inch, flange back intercept 17.5mm.
2. CS-Mount: 1" diameter with 32 threads per inch, flange back intercept 12.5mm.
CS-Mount can be converted to a C-Mount through a 5mm spacer, C-mount industrial camera cannot use the CS-mount lens.
3. F-Mount: F-mount is the adapter standard of Nikon lens, also known as Nikon mouth, usually used on large-sized sensor cameras, the flange back intercept is 46.5mm.
|Frame rate is the number of output of frames per second, FPS or Hertz for short. The number of frames per second (fps) or frame rate represents the number of times the graphics process is updated per second.|
Due to the physiological structure of the human eye, when the frame rate of the picture is higher than 16fps, it is considered to be coherent, and high frame rate can make the image frame more smooth and realistic. Some industrial inspection camera applications also require a much higher frame rate to meet certain specific needs.
The higher the resolution of the camera, the lower the frame rate. Therefore, this should be taken into consideration during their selection. When needing to take static or still images, you often need a large resolution. When needing to operate under the microscope, or shooting dynamic images, frame rate should be first considered. In order to solve this problem, the general industrial camera design is to display the maximum frame rate and relatively smaller resolution when viewing; when shooting, the maximum resolution should be used; and some cameras need to set in advance different shooting resolutions when taking pictures, so as to achieve the best results.
|White balance is an indicator that describes the precision of white color generated in the image when the three primary colors of red, green and blue are mixed, which accurately reflects the color condition of the subject. There are manual white balance and automatic white balance.|
White balance of the camera is to "restore white objects to white color under any light source." The chromatic aberration phenomenon occurred under different light sources is compensated by enhancing the corresponding complementary color. Automatic white balance can generally be used, but under certain conditions if the hue is not ideal, options of other white balance may be selected.
|Camera crosshairs refers to the preset reference line within the camera, which is used to calibrate various positions on the display. The most commonly used is the crosshair, which is to determine the center position of the camera image, and it is very important in measurement. Some cameras also have multiple crosshairs that can be moved to quickly detect and calibrate the size of the object being viewed. Some crosshairs can also change color to adapt to different viewing backgrounds.|
|After unpacking, carefully inspect the various random accessories and parts in the package to avoid omissions. In order to save space and ensure safety of components, some components will be placed outside the inner packaging box, so be careful of their inspection.|
For special packaging, it is generally after opening the box, all packaging boxes, protective foam, plastic bags should be kept for a period of time. If there is a problem during the return period, you can return or exchange the original. After the return period (usually 10-30 days, according to the manufacturer’s Instruction of Terms of Service), these packaging boxes may be disposed of if there is no problem.
|Video Microscope Optical Data Sheet|
|1. Magnification=Objective Optical Magnification * Body Magnification * Coupler Magnification|
|Camera Image Sensor Specifications|
|No.||Camera Image Sensor Size||Camera image Sensor Diagonal|
|Packaging Type||Carton Packaging|
|Packaging Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Packaging Dimensions(1)||64x42x25cm (25.197x16.535x9.842″)|
|Packaging Dimensions(2)||15.2x15.2x15.2cm (6x6x6″)|
|Packaging Dimensions(3)||28x23x7cm (11.024x9.055x2.756″)|
|Packaging Dimensions(4)||25.5x13.5x5.5cm (10.039x5.315x2.165″)|
|Packaging Dimensions(5)||25.5x21.5x6.5cm (10.039x8.464x2.559″)|
|Inner Packing Material||Plastic Bag|
|Ancillary Packaging Materials||Expanded Polystyrene|
|Gross Weight||9.27kg (20.43lbs)|
|Minimum Packaging Quantity||1pc|
|Transportation Carton||Carton Packaging|
|Transportation Carton Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(1)||64x42x25cm (25.197x16.535x9.842″)|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(2)||15.2x15.2x15.2cm (6x6x6″)|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(3)||28x23x7cm (11.024x9.055x2.756″)|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(4)||25.5x13.5x5.5cm (10.039x5.315x2.165″)|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(5)||25.5x21.5x6.5cm (10.039x8.464x2.559″)|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(kilogram)||9.27|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(pound)||20.43|
|Quantity of One Transportation Carton||5pc|