Infinite. Total Magnification: 3.44X/6.25X/10.94X/18.75X/34.38X. 12.5X Eyepiece. 0.5X Infinity Achromatic Objective. Standard Coupler: 0.5X. Body Mounting Size for Stand: Dia. 76mm. Eye Tube Angle: 0-90°. Eyepiece Field of View: Dia. 18mm. Post Stand. Illumination Type: LED Dual Illuminated Light . Top Illumination: Oblique Top Light. Input Voltage: AC 90-260V 47-63Hz.
|Surgical microscope is a stereo microscope used for microsurgery, diagnostic treatment, observation, and research and other different functions of humans and animals under the microscope.|
An surgical microscope has an optical system for observation, including an eyepiece, an objective lens, an objective lens zoom set, and lighting, stands, and electrical components, and its accessories are configured according to different needs.
The magnification of the surgical microscope is generally 8-20X. Compared with the stereo microscope, it has special requirements of large field of view, large depth of field, and long working distance, characterized by compact structure, small size and flexible operation.
Surgical microscope typically has flexible, large-space moving stands and electric controls.
For more precautions for use of surgical microscope, please refer to the Stereo Microscope on the BoliOptics website.
|Microscopes and components have two types of optical path design structures.|
One type is finite optical structural design, in which light passing through the objective lens is directed at the intermediate image plane (located in the front focal plane of the eyepiece) and converges at that point. The finite structure is an integrated design, with a compact structure, and it is a kind of economical microscope.
Another type is infinite optical structural design, in which the light between the tube lens after passing the objective lens becomes "parallel light". Within this distance, various kinds of optical components necessary such as beam splitters or optical filters call be added, and at the same time, this kind of design has better imaging results. As the design is modular, it is also called modular microscope. The modular structure facilitates the addition of different imaging and lighting accessories in the middle of the system as required.
The main components of infinite and finite, especially objective lens, are usually not interchangeable for use, and even if they can be imaged, the image quality will also have some defects.
The separative two-objective lens structure of the dual-light path of stereo microscope (SZ/FS microscope) is also known as Greenough.
Parallel optical microscope uses a parallel structure (PZ microscope), which is different from the separative two-object lens structure, and because its objective lens is one and the same, it is therefore also known as the CMO common main objective.
|The magnification of the objective lens refers to the lateral magnification, it is the ratio of the image to the real size after the original image is magnified by the instrument. This multiple refers to the length or width of the magnified object.|
System optical magnification is the product of the eyepiece and the objective lens (objective lens zoom set) of the optical imaging part within the system.
Optical magnification = eyepiece multiple X objective lens/objective lens set
The maximum optical magnification of the microscope depends on the wavelength of the light to which the object is illuminated. The size of the object that can be observed must be greater than the wavelength of the light. Otherwise, the light cannot be reflected or transmitted, or recognized by the human eye. The shortest wavelength of ultraviolet light is 0.2 microns, so the resolution of the optical microscope in the visible range does not exceed 0.2 microns, or 200 nanometers. This size is converted to the magnification of the microscope, and it is the optical magnification of 2000X. Usually, the compound microscope can achieve 100X objective lens, the eyepiece is 20X, and the magnification can reach 2000X. If it is bigger, it will be called "invalid magnification", that is, the image is large, but the resolution is no longer increased, and no more details and information can be seen.
|When the instrument is conducting electronic image magnification and observation through a camera or the like, the optically magnified portion may not be the optical path that passes through the "eyepiece-objective lens" of the instrument, at this time, the calculation method of the magnification is related to the third-party photo eyepiece passed. |
The trinocular optical magnification is equal to the multiplier product of objective lens (objective lens set) and the photo eyepiece
Trinocular optical magnification = objective lens X photo eyepiece
|Total magnification is the magnification of the observed object finally obtained by the instrument. This magnification is often the product of the optical magnification and the electronic magnification.|
When it is only optically magnified, the total magnification will be the optical magnification.
Total magnification = optical magnification X electronic magnification
Total magnification = (objective X photo eyepiece) X (display size / camera sensor target )
|Field of View, is also called FOV. |
The field of view, or FOV, refers to the size of the object plane (i.e., the plane of the point of the observed object perpendicular to the optical axis), or of its conjugate plane (i.e., object to primary image distance), represented by a line value.
System field of view is the size of the actual diameter of the image of the terminal display device of the instrument, such as the size of the image in the eyepiece or in the display.
Field of view number refers to the diameter of the field diaphragm of the objective lens, or the diameter of the image plane formed by the field diaphragm.
Field of view number of objective lens = field of view number of eyepiece / (objective magnification / mechanical tube length)
Large field of view makes it easy to observe the full view and more range of the observed object, but the field of view (FOV) is inversely proportional to the magnification and inversely proportional to the resolution, that is, the larger the field of view, the smaller the magnification, and also the lower the resolution of the object to be observed.
There are usually two ways to increase the field of view, one is to replace with an objective lens of a smaller multiple, or to replace with an eyepiece of a smaller multiple.
|Working distance, also referred to as WD, is usually the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective lens of the microscope to the surface of the observed object.|
When the working distance or WD is large, the space between the objective lens and the object to be observed is also large, which can facilitate operation and the use of corresponding lighting conditions.
In general, system working distance is the working distance of the objective lens. When some other equipment, such as a light source etc., is used below the objective lens, the working distance (i.e., space) will become smaller.
Working distance or WD is related to the design of the working distance of the objective lens. Generally speaking, the bigger the magnification of the objective lens, the smaller the working distance. Conversely, the smaller the magnification of the objective lens, the greater the working distance.
When it is necessary to change the working distance requirement, it can be realized by changing the magnification of the objective lens.
|For siedentopf eyetube, when changing the interpupillary distance, it requires two hands pushing or pulling the two eyetubes left and right simultaneously, and the two eyepiece tubes or eyetubes will change their position at the same time.|
|Usually the Microscope Eyetube is 45°, some is 30°, Tiltable Eyetube Angle design of a microscope is also known as the ergonomics microscope.|
0-30° or 0-45° is an ergonomic design. When the mechanical tube length / focal length of the tube of the microscope is relatively big, the microscope is relatively high, and the user's height or the seat of the work desk is not suitable, long-term use of microscope may cause sitting discomfort.
Eyepiece tube with variable angle can freely adjust the angle without lowering the head. Especially when it is close to 0 degree and the human eye is close to horizontal viewing, long-time or long-term use can avoid fatigue damage to the cervical vertebra.
|After imaging through a set of objective lenses, the object observed and the image seen by the human eye is inverted. When the observed object is manipulated, move the specimen or object, the image will move in the opposite direction in the field of view. Most of the biological microscopes are reversed-phase designs.|
When needing to operate works with accurate direction, it is necessary to design it into a forward microscope. Generally stereo microscopes and metallurgical microscopes are all of erect image design.
When observing through the camera and display, the erect and inverted image can be changed by the orientation of the camera.
|The eyepiece of the microscope can have different viewing or observing directions. When the position of the microscope is uncomfortable, the direction of the eyepiece tube of the microscope can be adjusted, to facilitate observation and operation.|
Placement method of different viewing angles of the microscope:
General direction: the support column is behind the object to be observed
Reverse direction: the support column is in front of the object to be observed
Lateral direction: the support column is on the side of the object to be observed
Rotating eyepiece tube, different microscopes may have different methods, for some, the direction is confirmed when installing the eyepiece tube of the microscope, for some, by rotating the body of the microscope, and for some, by rotating the support member on the support or holder of the microscope.
|The distance between the two pupils of the human eye is different. When the image of exit pupil of the two eyepieces of the microscope are not aligned with the entry pupil of the eye, the two eyes will see different images, which can cause discomfort.|
Adjust the distance between the two eyepieces, to accommodate or adapt to the pupil distance of the observer's eyes. The adjustment range is generally between 55-75mm.
|For most people, their two eyes, the left and the right, have different vision; for the eyepiece tube, the eyepoint height of the eyepiece can be adjusted to compensate for the difference in vision between the two eyes, so that the imaging in the two eyes is clear and consistent. |
The range of adjustment of the eyepiece tube is generally diopter plus or minus 5 degrees, and the maximum differential value between the two eyepieces can reach 10 degrees.
Monocular adjustable and binocular adjustable: some microscopes have one eyepiece tube adjustable, and some have two eyepiece tubes adjustable. First, adjust one eyepiece tube to the 0 degree position, adjust the microscope focusing knob, and find the clear image of this eyepiece (when the monocular adjustable is used, first adjust the focusing knob to make this eyepiece image clear), then adjust the image of another eyepiece tube (do not adjust the focusing knob again at this time), repeatedly adjust to find the clear position, then the two images are clear at the same time. For this particular user, do not adjust this device anymore in the future.
As some microscopes do not have the vision adjustment mechanism for the eyepiece tube, the vision of the two eyes are adjusted through the eyepiece adjustable.
|Eyepiece optical magnification is the visual magnification of the virtual image after initial imaging through the eyepiece. When the human eye observes through the eyepiece, the ratio of the tangent of the angle of view of the image and the tangent of the angle of view of the human eye when viewing or observing the object directly at the reference viewing distance is usually calculated according to 250 mm/focal length of eyepiece.|
The standard configuration of a general microscope is a 10X eyepiece.
Usually, the magnification of the eyepiece of compound microscope is 5X, 8X, 10X, 12.5X, 16X, 20X.
As stereo microscope has a low total magnification, its eyepiece magnification generally does not use 5X, but can achieve 25X, 30X and other much bigger magnification.
|The eyepiece field of view is the diameter of the field diaphragm of the eyepiece, or the diameter of the image plane of the field diaphragm imaged by the field diaphragm.|
The diameter of a large field of view can increase the viewing range, and see more detail in the field of view. However, if the field of view is too large, the spherical aberration and distortion around the eyepiece will increase, and the stray light around the field of view will affect the imaging effect.
|Eye point refers to the axial distance between the upper end of the metal frame of the eyepiece and the exit of pupil.|
The exit of pupil distance of high eyepoint eyepiece is farther than that of the eye lens of the ordinary eyepiece. When this distance is greater than or equal to 18mm, it is a high eyepoint eyepiece. When observing, one does not need to be too close to the eyepiece lens, making it comfort to observe, and it can also be viewed with glasses. Generally, there is a glasses logo on the eyepiece, indicating that it is a high eyepoint eyepiece.
|The finite objective is the lateral magnification of the primary image formed by the objective at a prescribed distance.|
Infinite objective is the lateral magnification of the real image produced by the combination of the objective and the tube lens.
Infinite objective magnification = tube lens focal length (mm) / objective focal length (mm)
Lateral magnification of the image, that is, the ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object.
The larger the magnification of the objective, the higher the resolution, the smaller the corresponding field of view, and the shorter the working distance.
|In the case of polychromatic light imaging, the aberration caused by the light of different wavelengths becomes chromatic aberration. Achromatic aberration is to correct the axial chromatic aberration to the two line spectra (C line, F line); apochromatic aberration is to correct the three line spectra (C line, D line, F line).|
The objective is designed according to the achromaticity and the flatness of the field of view. It can be divided into the following categories.
Achromatic objective: achromatic objective has corrected the chromatic aberration, spherical aberration, and comatic aberration. The chromatic portion of the achromatic objective has corrected only red and green, so when using achromatic objective, yellow-green filters are often used to reduce aberrations. The aberration of the achromatic objective in the center of the field of view is basically corrected, and as its structure is simple, the cost is low, it is commonly used in a microscope.
Semi-plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objective, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be properly corrected.
Plan achromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of achromatic objectives, the curvature of field and astigmatism of the objective should also be well corrected. The plan objective provides a very good correction of the image plane curvature in the field of view of the objective, making the entire field of view smooth and easy to observe, especially in measurement it has achieved a more accurate effect.
Plan semi-apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to well correct the secondary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line and the F line).
Plan apochromatic objective: in addition to meeting the requirements of plan achromatic objective, it is necessary to very well correct the tertiary spectrum of the objective (the axial chromatic aberration of the C line, the D line and the F line) and spherochromatic aberration. The apochromatic aberration has corrected the chromatic aberration in the range of red, green and purple (basically the entire visible light), and there is basically no limitation on the imaging effect of the light source. Generally, the apochromatic aberration is used in a high magnification objective.
|The objective working distance is the vertical distance from the foremost surface end of the objective of the microscope to the object surface to be observed.|
Generally, the greater the magnification, the higher the resolution of the objective, and the smaller the working distance, the smaller the field of view. Conversely, the smaller the magnification, the lower the resolution of the objective, and the greater the working distance, and greater the field of view.
High-magnification objectives (such as 80X and 100X objectives) have a very short working distance. Be very careful when focusing for observation. Generally, it is after the objective is in position, the axial limit protection is locked, then the objective is moved away from the direction of the observed object.
The relatively greater working distance leaves a relatively large space between the objective and the object to be observed. It is suitable for under microscope operation, and it is also easier to use more illumination methods. The defect is that it may reduce the numerical aperture of the objective, thereby reducing the resolution.
|For microscopes of different manufacturers and different models, the thread size of their objectives may also be different. |
In general, the objective threads are available in two standard sizes, allowing similar objectives between different manufacturers to be used interchangeably.
One is the British system: RMS type objective thread: 4/5in X 1/36in,
One is metric: M25 X 0.75mm thread.
|The third eyepiece splitting in the trinocular microscope is to borrow one of the two sets of eyepiece optical paths as the photographic light path. The beam split prism or beam splitter can reflect part of the image light to the eyepiece, and part passes through to the third eyepiece photographic light path, such a trinocular microscope is called trinocular simultaneous imaging microscope, or true-trinocular.|
The beam split prism or beam splitter of the trinocular simultaneous imaging microscope or true-trinocular often has different splitting modes, such as 20/80 and 50/50, etc. Usually, the former is the luminous flux ratio of the eyepiece optical path, and the latter is the luminous flux ratio of the photographic optical path.
The advantage of true-trinocular is that, the real three optical paths can be imaged at the same time, and are not affected by the simultaneous use of the eyepiece observation and the photographic optical path (display). The disadvantage is that, because of the reason of the splitting, the image light of the photography is only a part. In theory, the image effect will be affected, and the effect is more obvious in the binocular eyepiece observation. If viewed closely, one will find that the eyepiece of the light path is relatively dark. However, in the current optical design and materials, the impact on the actual work is not very big, especially in the observation of low magnification objective lens, it has basically no effect at all, and therefore used by many people.
|When microscope body changes the magnification, it is realized by adjusting the horizontally placed zoom knob. Because the knob is relatively small, it is therefore easier to zoom and the image is stable.|
For most of the dual stereo microscopes, magnification is realized by adjusting the zoom drum or nosepiece below. When the nosepiece is relatively big, frequent operation is more laborious. Magnifying while observing, the microscope may shake, thereby causing eye discomfort for observation.
Using zoom drum or nosepiece type microscope, if there is a ring light under the microscope, the ring light carries the wire, and when magnification conversion is often required, the ring light and the wire will swing along with the magnification, which makes the operation inconvenient. This situation will not occur to zoom with two horizontal knobs.
|Post stand generally has relatively tall post. When the focus is adjusted, the focusing mechanism can slide up and down the post, the microscope is thus placed in an approximately focused position, and then the focusing mechanism makes fine and accurate adjustment. This kind of stand can move quickly, and is suitable for viewing objects with a higher height and bigger volume.|
After the microscope is mounted, the microscope imaging center needs to be aligned with the center of the platen.
The focusing mechanism button on the post must be tightened to lock the guard ring device, and the microscope should be prevented from loosening and shaking when working. When it is necessary to adjust the height, hold the microscope and the focusing mechanism with one hand, then release the knob, adjust it to the proper position, lock the knob, then top the guard ring to the lower position of the focusing mechanism, and lock it tight. In particular, avoid accidental dropping of the microscope due to gravity, thereby damaging the microscope and the objects below.
|The 76mm stand scope holder is the most popular microscope body adapter size, suitable for stereo microscopes produced by most manufacturers.|
Place the microscope body in a 76mm scope holder, tighten with screws to avoid shaking when the microscope is in use.
Because this stand scope holder is very common, some special-sized microscopes can also borrow and use this stand, but only need a specific adapter to connect the microscope body with a diameter of less than 76mm.
|Illumination base is a modular light source component, suitable for microscope stand base that has no light source of itself, and it is usually dedicated components supporting some stands.|
Illumination base typically includes at least one bottom lighting, and there are also illumination base that includes the circuit portion of the upper light source.
|Different microscope bodies, different human operations, and different requirements for observation and operation, all require adjustment of the pre-tightening force of the stand that support microscope body.|
Facing the stand just right, use both hands to reverse the force to adjust the tightness. (face the knob of one side just right, clockwise is to tighten, counterclockwise is to loosen)
In general, after long-time use, the knob will be loose, and adjustment is necessary.
|According to different objects to be observed, the appropriate platen should be selected. The microscope plate materials include black and white, black and white finish; transparent glass, frosted glass, metal, etc.|
Standard stands are generally configured with a suitable microscope plate, but different plates may need to be purchased separately.
Black and white microscope plate are made of general plastics, and the different backgrounds in black and white make the object more prominent.
Finish microscope plate eliminates reflections during observation.
Transparent glass plate is used when observing transparent or translucent objects, and the use of transmitted light source is to make the light penetrate the object to be observed as much as possible.
Finish glass plate, with its rough glass surface, can make the transmitted light more uniform and create a diffusing effect, avoiding exposure of the light shadow of the filament directly onto to the observed object.
Metal plate, relatively more solid, is more suitable when it is necessary to operate and cut.
Microscope plate is generally round shaped, on one side of the base there is a spring clip. When installing, align the plate with the clamp and push it in, and then press down the other end, so that the plate is smoothly embedded in to the circular card slot of the bottom plate.
When removing, grab the other end of the clip, push and lift up the plate.
|Coaxial reflection light is realized by a coaxial reflection illuminator. Coaxial reflection illuminator is placed horizontally, parallel to the worktable, and is at a 90 degree angle to the optical axis of the microscope. When the illumination light passes through the coaxial reflection illuminator, the light is first turned through a reflection prism or beam splitter to a 90-degree angle, and is vertically (or nearly vertical) irradiated onto the surface of the object to be observed, and then reflected back to enter into the eyepiece through the objective lens.|
The coaxial reflected light is suitable for illuminating planar objects and objects with high reflectivity. In addition, when the opaque or translucent objects are observed by large magnification objective lens, if the working distance is too short and an external light source cannot be used, the coaxial reflected light may be the best and the only choice.
Coaxial reflection illuminator, usually consisting of illumination light source, lamp chamber, condenser lens, aperture diaphragm and field diaphragm, color filter converter, and heat sink etc., achieves light emission and control.
The light or lamp chamber is generally made of a metal shell, with a ventilating vent or heat sink on the outside, but does not leak light, and has a spiral or top wire mechanism for adjusting the light axis.
Light source filament position and coaxial adjustment of the center of the optical axis
Because the illumination source is modularized with the microscope body and also, when in use, due to movement operation etc., the position of the filament of the illumination source and the illumination optical axis often deviate, which causes the Kohler illumination system to be damaged, thereby affecting the brightness of the field of view and the uniformity of illumination.
The main reason that affects the uniformity of illumination is that the position of the filament of the light source is not on the optical axis, which makes the field of view appear uneven. The main reason that affects the brightness of the field of view is that, after passing through the condenser for condensation, the illumination light is not focused on the aperture diaphragm plane.
The above therefore needs to adjust the position of the bulb in the coaxial reflection illuminator. Firstly, by adjusting the positioning screw on the light source, change the position of the lamp holder, and adjust the illumination bulb up and down, left and right, so that the filament is located on the optical axis of the center. Then, loosen the fixing screws on the condenser, move the condenser back and forth, so that the illumination light will converge at the center of the aperture diaphragm, and then tighten the screws. This not only makes the illumination in the field of view the brightest, but also uniform, and has no filament image.
Some metallurgical microscopes are equipped with "light chamber adjustment objective lens". When using, first remove an objective lens, rotate the light chamber adjustment objective lens into the nosepiece, and transfer it into the imaging light path, and replace the objective lens for the above adjustment.
|Coupler/C-mount adapter is an adapter commonly used for connection between the C-adapter camera (industrial camera) and a microscope.|
|Different coupler/C-mount-adapters are suitable for different microscopes. For some, some adapter accessories need to be replaced. See the applicable range of each coupler/C-mount-adapter for details.|
|Coupler magnification refers to the line field magnification of the coupler/C-mount-adapter. With different magnifications of the adapter lens, images of different magnifications and fields of view can be obtained. The size of the image field of view is related to the sensor size and the coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.|
Camera image field of view (mm) = sensor diagonal / coupler/C-mount-adapter magnification.
For example: 1/2 inch sensor size, 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter coupler, field of view FOV (mm) = 8mm / 0.5 = 16mm.
The field of view number of the microscope 10X eyepiece is usually designed to be 18, 20, 22, 23mm, less than 1 inch (25.4mm). Since most commonly used camera sensor sizes are 1/3 and 1/2 inches, this makes the image field of view on the display always smaller than the field of view of the eyepiece for observation, and the visual perception becomes inconsistent when simultaneously viewed on both the eyepiece and the display. If it is changed to a 0.5X coupler/C-mount-adapter, the microscope image magnification is reduced by 1/2 and the field of view is doubled, then the image captured by the camera will be close to the range observed in the eyepiece.
Some adapters are designed without a lens, and their optical magnification is considered 1X.
|For the size of the lens field of view of the coupler/C-mount-adapter, in the design process, the size of the camera sensor imaging target should be considered. When the field of view of the lens is smaller than the target plane of the camera, “black border” and “dark corner” will appear.|
The general microscope coupler/C-mount adapters are generally designed for the 1/2" camera targets. When a camera of 2/3 or larger target is used, the “dark corner” phenomenon will appear in the field of view. Especially, at present, DSLR cameras generally use large target plane design (1 inch full field of view), when used for microscopic photographing, the general DSLR camera coupler/C-mount adapter will have “black border”.
Generally, the “dark corner” that appears on the field of view is often that the center of the microscope and the camera are not aligned. Adjust the position of the screw on the camera adapter, or turn the camera adapter to adjust or change the effect.
|At present, the coupler/C-mount adapter generally adopts the C/CS-Mount adapter to match with the industrial camera. For details, please refer to "Camera Lens Mount".|
|After unpacking, carefully inspect the various random accessories and parts in the package to avoid omissions. In order to save space and ensure safety of components, some components will be placed outside the inner packaging box, so be careful of their inspection.|
For special packaging, it is generally after opening the box, all packaging boxes, protective foam, plastic bags should be kept for a period of time. If there is a problem during the return period, you can return or exchange the original. After the return period (usually 10-30 days, according to the manufacturer’s Instruction of Terms of Service), these packaging boxes may be disposed of if there is no problem.
|Microscope Optical Data Sheet|
|P/N||Objective||Objective Working Distance||Eyepiece|
|SM51033311 (12.5X Dia. 18mm)|
|Magnification||Field of View(mm)|
|1. Magnification=Objective Optical Magnification * Body Magnification * Eyepiece Optical Magnification|
|2. Field of View=Eyepiece Field of View /（Objective Optical Magnification*Body Magnification）|
|3. The Darker background items are Standard items, the white background items are optional items.|
|Video Microscope Optical Data Sheet|
|1. Magnification=Objective Optical Magnification * Body Magnification * Coupler Magnification|
|Packaging Type||Carton Packaging|
|Packaging Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Packaging Dimensions(1)||34x31x44cm (13.386x12.205x17.323″)|
|Packaging Dimensions(2)||31x22.5x36.5cm (12.205x8.858x14.370″)|
|Inner Packing Material||Plastic Bag|
|Ancillary Packaging Materials||Expanded Polystyrene|
|Gross Weight||7.30kg (16.09lbs)|
|Transportation Carton||Carton Packaging|
|Transportation Carton Material||Corrugated Carton|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(1)||34x31x44cm (13.386x12.205x17.323″)|
|Transportation Carton Dimensions(2)||31x22.5x36.5cm (12.205x8.858x14.370″)|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(kilogram)||7.30|
|Total Gross Weight of Transportation(pound)||16.09|
|Quantity of One Transportation Carton||2pc|